July 30 2011
The most serious issues facing the state, any state, is the issue of national security (national), the issue of existence, where strategies are developed and policy-making in order to ensure this. The issue of national security far beyond what is customary to secure the safety of land, water and sky, what is much further; provide immunity against internal disintegration and fragmentation, and provide immunity against the risks that threaten the wealth of vital; sources of food and water sources.
All Arab countries can consider desert areas or convertible, because the rainfall is very low on the one hand, and because the sources of waters, in the case of these sources, located outside the geographical boundaries, on the other. The fact that this serious issue, it received over the past decades worth of study, including the Arab and locally, in anticipation of what comes a few days.
The United Nations issued in the twenty-second of March this year, World Water Day, a report on a high degree of importance, he turned to the tragic situation caused by water scarcity and pollution in Iraq and the suffering of Iraqis as a result.
Despite the seriousness, the treatment requires effective and immediate, but this is not the subject of this article. The report pointed to what is more serious: «possible depletion of the Tigris and Euphrates, fully depleted by the year 2040, due to climate change or low rates of water from the source, increased industrial and domestic use».
Going to ignore it in this report of weakness, while making the depletion of rivers is damaging not only in Iraq, ignoring the effects on the ecosystem in the entire region, and we will focus on the essence of the subject; desertification Iraq. The fact that this warning comes at a time when we can say what the report did not say the international organization, which usually take into account the international protocols, and gives a lot of importance to the preamble of reports that come in many cases vague. We can reduce the real causes of the disaster expected, at only one reason, the low rates of water from the source.
Iraq complains of drought, rainfall rates are low and not exceeding 200 mm per year in most regions, while the rates for more than 600 mm, and up to twice that in some cases in the province of Kurdistan. Therefore, the strategy of water depends mainly on the rivers, which are international rivers, and because it «is located in the territories of more than one country».
Geographically, Iraq is a country downstream of all the small and large rivers that enter its territory, wealth is the water of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. While lacking the tributaries of the River Euphrates, all the water that comes from Turkey, the tributaries, a tributary of the number thirtieth some other permanent and seasonal, mostly from Iran, to provide the Tigris River, about half its water, and the other half comes from Turkey.
Causes of water scarcity in Iraq, is to withhold water neighbors about it. The Turkey has built 14 dams on the Euphrates River and its tributaries within its territory, and the construction of 8 dams on the Tigris River and its tributaries within its territory, Syria has built five dams on the Euphrates River, is in the process to start building a dam on the Tigris River, which runs for a short distance in their territory near the its borders with Turkey and Iraq, beyond the cost, according to the Syrian news agency SANA, 100 billion Syrian pounds external financing.
This project aims to pump and investment of 1250 million cubic meters of water from the Tigris River, to serve the goals of development in Hasaka, and irrigating 200 thousand hectares of the territory of the province, and provide drinking water for the people by 125 million cubic meters annually. Iran transferred most of the tributaries of the Tigris within its territory.
Several dams constructed on them. And deserted as a result large areas very best agricultural land in central and southern Iraq, prompting thousands of the rural population to migrate to cities in recent years in search of a better life, which has put pressure on urban areas, which are also not find enough of the services in various fields .
The problem of water is particularly important for Iraq, because of its institutions through its long history did not think about such a problem, and therefore did not develop scenarios to face them on the political, diplomatic, and economic and technical, although the indicators of scarcity has started since the early eighties of the last century, when Turkey began in the implementation of the South- Eastern Anatolia. Iraq had no alternatives but to resort to international organizations to remedy, Fjaranh adopt the theory of absolute sovereignty on the water that pass through their lands, unlike adopted and adheres to it, a theory of regional unity absolute: «the river from its source until its mouth is a territorial unit, regardless of frontiers geographical and political ».
The resort to desalination of sea water, as the Gulf states do, is the choice facing many difficulties, and the cost of considerable financial might Iraq cannot afford in the era of the fall of the oil that is inevitably coming, so as to narrow the area of water available to him on the Persian Gulf, compared to spaces available on the seas most Arab countries.
Because this space is located in the far south, which imparts additional costs to pump desalinated water to the north, to areas of high distances closer than a thousand kilometers (high capital above sea level is 32 meters). There is also the cost of other intervention in the process of desalination.
The proportion of salts in the Upper Gulf of more than forty parts per thousand, which is higher than the rate of the ratio known in the seas, which amounts to thirty-four parts per thousand, with the consequent rise in osmosis, and requires utilize more electrical energy used in the process of osmosis reverse, the most common operations in water desalination.